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LTE

01.2019

LTE in Unlicensed Spectrum

The “history” of 3GPP system “entering” the unlicensed spectrum regime seems to happened already a long time ago. Tight LTE interworking with WiFi is one way for the MNOs to offload traffic. The other one, discussed within this blogpost, is based on a specialized design of LTE system to be able to cope with ISM/license exempt bands’ special requirements e.g., fair coexistence with other users of this spectrum (e.g. Legacy WiFi).

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11.2018

3GPP Release-16: Further LTE and 5G NR Enhancements – Part 2 (Study Items)

This post focuses on the selected Study Items that 3GPP has chosen for Rel-16 including: V2X, SON, NOMA, Unlicensed Spectrum Access and beyond 52.6GHz, and more.

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10.2018

3GPP Release-16: Further LTE and 5G NR Enhancements

This year we have seen the rapid standardization of 3GPP Rel-15, 5G-NR, laying the foundation for the first 5G networks. This blogpost, discusses the ideas and enhancements that are currently being worked on for 3GPP Release-16. These enhancements cover not only 5G-NR, but also LTE which is being advanced in parallel.

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05.2018

LTE and 5G Differences: Function Decomposition Between RAN and CN

Let’s take a quick look at some of the differences between LTE and 5G in the area of functional splits between RAN and Core Network. We show and discuss high level splits of selected functionalities of the main “network functions/nodes” in both systems (discussing it from the 3GPP RAN3 WG perspective) from which we can make some conclusions on the differences between those two systems.

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03.2018

How does OFDM work?

After discussing the main wireless transmission concept (How wireless works?), main channel propagation phenomena (What is pathloss? and What is shadowing?), and antenna configurations (What is MIMO?), let’s now take a look at one of the most commonly used transmission scheme nowadays, namely Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). But, before we explain why do we […]

12.2017

LTE-Advanced Pro and Massive MTC – Part 2: eMTC

eMTC (aka LTE Cat-M, while in fact, CAT-M is just a definition of UE type/category supporting eMTC) is a low power wide area (LPWA) wireless technology developed by the 3GPP to address the growing need for a solution to address the requirements for IoT applications and Machine-Type Communication (MTC) in terms of cost and power consumption reduction without any significant change to the current LTE deployment.

10.2017

What are the practical aspects of LTE, LTE-Advanced Pro and 5G? – A new book.

This book guides you through the LTE, LTE-Advanced Pro and 5G from the perspective of practical aspects of air interface, RAN, Core Network and end-to-end data transfer. The practical approach is reflected by the angle of system design, link budget process, network planning, parameter configurations and optimizations together with the required tradeoffs. We also evaluate the different features’ impact on the overall system as it evolves from LTE to LTE-Advanced and then going further to LTE-Advanced Pro and 5G.

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04.2017

3GPP Release-15: Further LTE Enhancements and 5G Normative Work Kick-off

LTE-Advanced Pro1 was defined within Rel-13, but the standardization didn’t stop there. Further enhancements have been introduced in Rel-14 and recently started Rel-15. In parallel to LTE evolution, both releases initialized, the first set of study and work items towards 5G.  While Rel-14 focused solely on 5G study items, the normative work for the first […]

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03.2017

“3GPP Spectrum Access Evolution Towards 5G” – a survey paper co-authored by Grandmetric

The survey article co-authored by Grandmetric and Movilo, “3GPP Spectrum Access Evolution Towards 5G“, Michal Szydelko and Marcin Dryjanski [1], presents the evolution of: EUTRA frequency bands, Spectrum aggregation mechanisms, Spectrum licensing, Duplexing schemes, Spectrum sharing, Spectrum refarming techniques, within 3GPP, with the focus on LTE-Advanced Pro [2] and beyond. Note: this article reflects the […]

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02.2017

LTE-Advanced Pro and Unlicensed Spectrum

LTE operation in unlicensed spectrum is not limited to its aggregation with WiFi (like with LWA, LWIP and RCLWI)¹. Another approach to utilize the unlicensed spectrum combined with the MNO-controlled LTE networks is based on a specialized version of LTE system designed to cope with the unlicensed spectrum’s requirements. This is referred to as Licensed […]

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